Criminal Justice News

Thursday, May 29, 2008

10th Annual Technologies for Critical Incident Preparedness Conference and Exposition October 29-31, 2008

The U.S. Departments of
Justice (DOJ), Homeland Security (DHS), and Defense (DoD)

DOJ's Office of
Justice Programs' National Institute of Justice, DHS's Science and Technology Directorate, and DoD's Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Americas' Security Affairs

Law Enforcement Executive Development Association
InterAgency Board for Interoperability and Standardization
International Association of Chiefs of
International Association of Emergency Managers
National Emergency Management Association
Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center
National Sheriffs' Association
Public Safety and Security Institute for
Technical Support Working Group
US Army RDECOM's Natick Research Development and Engineering Center

The 10th annual Technologies for Critical Incident Preparedness Conference and Exposition highlights DOJ, DHS and DoD's
technology and training tools currently available and being developed for the emergency responder community, as well as provides a forum for emergency responders to discuss best practices and exchange information. With 1,500 attendees and 200 exhibits and demonstrations expected, this conference offers a unique opportunity for emergency responders, business and industry, academia and local, tribal, state, and Federal stakeholders to network, exchange ideas and address common critical incident technology and preparedness needs, protocols, and solutions.

Hyatt Regency
151 East Wacker Drive
Chicago, IL 60601

Room Rates:
$185: State/local public safety practitioners
$205*: Federal government/industry/other
(subject to change 10/01/08 to FY09 per diem)

Hyatt Regency Chicago hotel reservations will be available starting in early June through the conference website.


$250: Local, Tribal, State & Federal Government
$350: Non-profit/Academia/Federally designated 8(A)'s
$550: Private Sector/Industry/Other

Attendee registration will open in early June at Look for our next e-mail, which will announce the opening of registration, in a couple of weeks!


$1,800: Local, Tribal, State & Federal Government/Non-profit/Academia
$2,000: Private Sector/Industry/Other

Exhibit booth sales for our largest exhibit area in 10 years will open in early June at Look for our next e-mail, which will announce the opening of the exhibit booth sales, in a couple of weeks!


Wednesday, May 28, 2008

Public Safety Technology in the News

SmartBadge Techs Up U.S. Police
iTnews, (05/13/2008), Liz Tay

A new type of
police officers' badge will include a camera, Bluetooth technology, global positioning system technology, and radio, with possible future upgrades to include facial recognition for cross-checking motorists' licenses against police database records. Its developers have dubbed it the "SmartBadge" and hope that the tool will appeal to the law enforcement community because of the low cost, off-the-shelf technology. The tool was designed with foot patrol officers in mind to provide them access to the types of tools often available in cruisers that can make their jobs easier. The Albany, New York, police will be involved in testing this tool in late 2008.,smartbadge-techs-up-us-police.aspx

Prisons Use RFID Systems To Track Inmates
Technology, (05/07/2008), Jim McKay

Radio frequency identification (RFID)
technology, which is used extensively by retail establishments and other commercial businesses, is now being used by developed for use in correctional facilities to track inmates and staff and to prevent problems before they occur. Facilities in states such as California, Virginia, Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, and Minnesota have implemented RFID inmate tracking systems. The use of RFID provides an added level of security to facilities, allowing staff to know where everyone inside the RF perimeter is at any time. Also, having this level of tracking and identification within a facility allows staff to keep known members of rival gangs away from each other. Furthermore, the system's capabilities can be used to expedite investigations involving inmates or staff by identifying individuals in the area at the time of an incident.

Online Maps Plot
Crime in Dalton
Chattanooga Times/Free Press, (05/07/2008), Ryan Harris

Tyrone, Georgia, was a
police department that used pushpins on a city map to plot criminal activity in its jurisdiction, but as of October 2007, the agency began using to plot that information. This change allows the agency to share the pushpin map with citizens of the community. The site allows users to register for e-mail alerts regarding crime activity in their area and to use the Google Maps feature to see visually where crimes are taking place. The city of Dalton, Georgia, joined the service last month at a cost of $100 per month; jurisdictions larger than 50,000 will be charged $200 per month. The service allows agencies to keep their citizenry involved and informed as to things happening in the city and it may allow citizens to help the police solve more crimes.

Sypherlink Introduces Out-of-the-Box Enhancement to Its NIE Gateway Solution for
Law Enforcement; NIEM Harmonizer Enables Quick, Cost-Effective Data Sharing and NIEM Standards Conformance
FoxBusiness, (05/05/2008), Business Wire

Sypherlink, creator of the National Information Exchange (NIE) Gateway solution for
law enforcement, has developed the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) Harmonizer, an off-the-shelf enhancement to the original product. This add-on will expedite the sharing of vital information in accordance with the NIEM standard. The Harmonizer will work behind the scenes to automate the sharing and conversion of data, which will allow agency staff and vendors to focus on their day-to-day tasks.

NYPD Plans Surveillance Data Network
Byte and Switch, (05/07/2008), James Rogers

In support of the
New York Police Department's Lower Manhattan Security Initiative (LMSI), the agency is anticipating a massive storage upgrade to capture and carry streaming video from the area. The project will cover Manhattan's financial institutions such as Wall Street and the New York Stock Exchange, as well as Ground Zero and city hall. Cameras will be deployed on roughly 1,000 buildings in the area and an undisclosed number of police cruisers. The LMSI system will handle the feeds from these locations, as well as from NYPD's Real Time Crime Center and other cruisers from around the city. This project will also involve the creation of two data centers, facial recognition software, and the use of Microsoft's Virtual Earth. Another aspect of LMSI is the installation of satellite dishes on all police precincts to ensure communications and network capabilities in the event of a flood or other natural disaster.

Police To Examine Gunshot Detection Device
Greenwich Time, (05/11/2008), John Nickerson

To reduce and better investigate an increasing amount of reports regarding shots fired in the city, the Norwalk
Police Department is considering the acquisition of gunshot location/detection technology. It is hoped that the technology, if proven to be applicable in Norwalk, will help the department respond more quickly to shots fired calls, which have recently increased to three to four calls a week. Presently, officers respond to these calls by starting at the origin of the complaint and working out from that point. With this technology, they hope to be able to focus their investigations more accurately on the location of the shots.

How Can CCTV Spot Suspects by Clothing Logos?
BBC News Magazine, (05/07/2008)

The vast and established network of video surveillance used in the United Kingdom means the odds of committing a crime and not being caught on tape either before, during, or after the fact are very low. However, capturing a clear image of a perpetrator's face is not always guaranteed in spite of the amount of surveillance being used. But, thanks to software used by the sponsors of sporting events to track the visibility of their brand during television coverage of an event,
police may be able to increase the odds of conviction in instances where the perpetrator's identity is obscured. For example, a crime is committed by an individual wearing clothing that has the Adidas logo on it. A still image of that individual is provided to the software to begin the search. The software searches police data and images from other cameras located near the crime scene for a match to that logo image, which could in turn result in a better image of the individual's face. The advantage fo! r law enforcement is a reduction in time spent manually viewing footage hoping for a hit.

Fire Departments Making the Upgrade
Abilene Reporter-News, (04/28/2008), Celinda Emison

Governor Rick Perry recently handed down the Texas Radio Communications Interoperability Plan, which orders all counties and cities to have communications equipment capable of interoperability by 2015. Counties and cities that are part of the West Central Texas Council of Governments (WCTCOG) have for the past 5 years been making use of grant funds to improve out-of-date systems; improve interoperability between police, fire and emergency services; and purchase equipment capable of regional usage in the event of a disaster. A needs assessment study conducted in 2001 identified $93 million in equipment needs, and from 2002 to 2007, $10 million in grant funds have been expended to update and improve systems. However, the biggest hurdle remains outdated analog equipment, which agencies have been urged to update to digital. For the 19 counties that make up the WCTCOG, communications issues remain a top priority.

City to Remove 'Blue Light' Crime Cameras
Baltimore Sun, (05/16/2008), John Fritze

Baltimore City Police Department will soon begin replacing 102 of its 454 closed circuit street surveillance cameras. The 102 portable overt digital surveillance system "pods" were installed in 2005; the technology has become outdated, and the manpower needed to render them effective deemed too significant. The city uses other cameras tied to a system that can be monitored at central location; however, the pods must be monitored on location using a laptop-style controller. The pods, by design, were meant to be seen and that visibility meant to contribute to their deterrent value. The city of Chicago is also making plans to replace this type of unit as part of an effort to have all of its cameras networked to a central location.,0,2866474.story

Local Law Enforcement Tap into LInX
WHQR, (05/13/2008), Peter Biello

Twenty agencies in North Carolina, including the
Wilmington Police Department and sheriff's offices in New Hanover, Brunswick, and Onslow, have joined the Law Enforcement Information Exchange (LInX) initiative. The project, initiated by the Naval Criminal Investigative Services (NCIS), has been established in nine regions nationally and is allowing officers from 20 North Carolina agencies access to that information network. Program Manager Brian Stampe likened the network to "Google for police officers." Agencies can use the network to search for potential leads in other agencies' information databases.§ionID=1

Tuesday, May 27, 2008


Thinking of you
Each night and day

Whilst I'm gone
From your loving arms

I sit a moment
In this tent

Appreciating the memories
Of all you've done for me.


Sunday, May 25, 2008

Cop Books from Florida

May 24, 2008 (San Dimas, CA) is a website that lists state and local police officers who have written books. Continuing its leadership in the area of criminal justice books, added one federal law enforcement official and two local police officers to the list of law enforcement personnel that have authored books.

Randy Gonzales has enjoyed a 32 year career in the criminal justice field. He has been a police officer, deputy sheriff, police instructor and chief of police of the New College of Florida Police Department. Dr. Randy Gonzalez holds a Master’s in Criminology and Public Administration, and a Ph.D. in Biblical Philosophy. A certified law enforcement instructor, Randy Gonzalez is the author of Crime Prevention for Children-a Basic Guide for Parents; An Introduction to Ethics and Professionalism in Law Enforcement; Law Enforcement Vehicle Pullovers and Traffic Stop Operations; Introduction to Law Enforcement Leadership and Supervision; Introduction to Law Enforcement the Practical Side of Criminology; Law Enforcement Tactics in Response to Terrorism; Leadership Principles of the Christian Warrior; Social Survival Tactics: A Guide to Basic Self-defense and Personal Safety Strategy; and, The Law Enforcement Leadership Field Notebook.

James Giammarinaro joined the United States Navy in the mid-1980s and served for over five years, including two deployments to the Persian. He began his law enforcement career when he joined the St. Augustine Police Department in 1990. During his career he has received an Officer of the Year Award and was promoted to the investigative unit in 2000. James Giammarinaro is the founder of the Child Safety Team, Inc. and the author of Parents, Predators, and Prevention.

According to the book description of Parents, Predators, and Prevention, “Written by a
Law Enforcement Sergeant, this book is your complete guide to learning about abductors, how they operate, and what you as parents can do to prevent your child from becoming the next victim. You will learn; How to empower your children to become more aware and confident; How to identify and deter the enemy; How to prevent the Internet Intruder from entering your home; and, Basic self-defense techniques for you and the family”

After a career as an undercover federal agent,
Sal Vizzini became the chief of police of the South Miami Police Department. Sal Vizzini is the co-author of Vizzini: The Secret Lives of America's Most Successful Undercover Agent. now hosts 1016
police officers (representing 428 police departments) and their 2166 criminal justice books in 33 categories, there are also listings of United States federal law enforcement employees turned authors, international police officers who have written books and civilian police personnel who have written books.

Thursday, May 22, 2008

Author James H. Lilley

May 22, 2008, 2008 (San Dimas, CA) On May 28, 2008, Conversations with Cops at the Watering Hole will feature an interview with James H. Lilley.

Program Date: May 28, 2008
Program Time: 2100 hours, Pacific
Topic: An Interview with
James H. Lilley
Listen Live:

About the Guest
James H. Lilley was selected as the 2008 Author of the Year. The author of the year selection was based in part on writing ability and in part on career and community service.

James H. Lilley began his lifetime of public service as a United States Marine, in 1961. Shortly after his discharge, he joined the Howard County Police Department (Maryland), graduating first in his class. During his career his received numerous honors such as Medal of Valor, four Bronze Stars, four Unit Citations and the Governor’s Citation. James H. Lilley has published six novels, articles in Police Chief Magazine and authored an International Association of Chiefs of Police training key. Moreover, he began studying Martial Arts in the early 1960s and is a 8th Degree Black Belt in Shorin Ryu Karate; the first American to achieve this recognition and honor from Sensei Takeshi Miyagi.

James H. Lilley submitted, for the 2008 Author of the Year, as an example of his work, The Eyes of the Hunter (PublishAmerica 1997). One of the judges said of James’ writing, “He is a mature writer with strong plot, character and story development.” Another judge said, “easy to read, and it was very good escapism. The writer has some absolutely beautiful passages wherein he describes a sound or a vista. The sex scenes are pretty hot, too.”

James H. Lilley’s current project is a true crime book and he has entered two of his books in the upcoming Hollywood Book Festival.

About the Watering Hole
The Watering Hole is police slang for a location cops go off-duty to blow off steam and talk about work and life. Sometimes funny; sometimes serious; but, always interesting.
About the Host
Raymond E. Foster was a sworn member of the Los Angeles Police Department for 24 years. He retired in 2003 at the rank of Lieutenant. He holds a bachelor’s from the Union Institute and University in Criminal Justice Management and a Master’s Degree in Public Financial Management from California State University, Fullerton; and, has completed his doctoral course work. Raymond E. Foster has been a part-time lecturer at California State University, Fullerton and Fresno; and is currently a faculty advisor and lecturer with the Union Institute and University. He has experience teaching upper division courses in law enforcement, public policy, law enforcement technology and leadership. Raymond is an experienced author who has published numerous articles in a wide range of venues including magazines such as Government Technology, Mobile Government, Airborne Law Enforcement Magazine, and Police One. He has appeared on the History Channel and radio programs in the United States and Europe as subject matter expert in technological applications in law enforcement.

Listen, call, join us at the Watering Hole.

Program Contact Information
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster, LAPD (ret.), MPA

Tuesday, May 20, 2008

Leadership in Criminal Justice Books

May 20, 2008 (San Dimas, CA) is a website that lists state and local police officers who have written books. Continuing its leadership in criminal justice books the website added 3 police officers; now listing well over 1000 state and local law enforcement officials who have authored books.

Martin Zaworski is a retired Captain of the Baltimore County Police Department (Maryland) and former Technical Services Division Commander of the Miami Beach Police Department (Florida) and most recently, former Chief Information Officer (CIO) of the Broward County Sheriff’s Office (Florida). He has also served as a consultant to the U.S. Navy’s Space and Warfare Systems Command, Charleston, for whom he has evaluated prototype public safety and Homeland Security technology.

Martin Zaworski has lectured nationally and has coauthored a book and numerous articles on the topic of public safety technology. He is a member of and has been an advisor to several national public safety committees including the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and has served as a subject matter expert - conducting grant reviews - for both the National Institute of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security. He holds both an MPA and Ph.D. in Public Administration from Florida International University. Martin Zaworski is the co-author of The Design of Information Systems for Law Enforcement: A Guide for Executives.

Rocky Pomerance, was the Chief of Police of Miami Beach Police Department from early 1950's through 1977 and served as the President of the International Association of Chiefs of Police from October 1973 through October 1974. Rocky Pomerance is the co-author of Preparation for the Police Officer Examination.

Fred Wooldridge served 28 years on law enforcement. During his career with the Miami Beach Police Department he served 7 years as the SWAT commander. He retired at the rank of Major. Fred Wooldridge is the author of I'm Moving Back to Mars.

According to the book description, “Moving Back to Mars is a curl up on the couch, fun book of easy reading, full of short stories that have nothing to do with science fiction or the planet Mars. It is, instead, the author's zany struggle to understand and maintain his relationships with the female species. If he can just accomplish that, he will not have to give in and move home to Mars. Both men and women will love reading his viewpoints on everything from why men ever taught women to play golf to exactly how women have overtaken the world, right under men's noses.” now hosts 1008
police officers (representing 422 police departments) and their 2119 criminal justice books in 33 categories, there are also listings of United States federal law enforcement employees turned authors, international police officers who have written books and civilian police personnel who have written books.

Monday, May 19, 2008

Secrets of Marine Corps Leadership

May 19, 2008, 2008 (San Dimas, CA) The Conversations with Cops at the Watering Hole May 21, 2008 will be discussing the secrets of Marine Corps Leadership with Wally Adamchik.

Program Date: May 21, 2008
Program Time: 2100 hours, Pacific
Topic: Secrets of
Marine Corps Leadership
Listen Live:

About the Guest
As an Officer of Marines,
Adamchik Wally deployed throughout the world as an armor officer and as a pilot of AH-1W Super Cobra attack helicopters. Always seeking a new challenge, Wally Adamchik entered the hyper-competitive private sector. He was recognized for superior performance and award-winning leadership at two national restaurant companies. At the same time he earned his Master of Business Administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Wally Adamchik serves as a consultant, speaker, and author. He works with firms to improve their leadership capability and organizational effectiveness. He understands the Fortune 500 firm as well as he does the family business and is able to tailor his approach to make an impact in both. He is a regular contributor to national business and trade publications and is a sought after leadership speaker.

His book, NO YELLING: The Nine Secrets of Marine Corps Leadership You MUST Know To WIN In Business, was selected by Entrepreneur magazine as one of the best reads for summer 2007.
Wally Adamchik also serves as a Non-Resident Fellow with Marine Corps University working with the Marines to improve leadership.

About the Watering Hole
The Watering Hole is police slang for a location cops go off-duty to blow off steam and talk about work and life. Sometimes funny; sometimes serious; but, always interesting.

About the Host
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster was a sworn member of the
Los Angeles Police Department for 24 years. He retired in 2003 at the rank of Lieutenant. He holds a bachelor’s from the Union Institute and University in Criminal Justice Management and a Master’s Degree in Public Financial Management from California State University, Fullerton; and, has completed his doctoral course work. Raymond E. Foster has been a part-time lecturer at California State University, Fullerton and Fresno; and is currently a faculty advisor and lecturer with the Union Institute and University. He has experience teaching upper division courses in law enforcement, public policy, law enforcement technology and leadership. Raymond is an experienced author who has published numerous articles in a wide range of venues including magazines such as Government Technology, Mobile Government, Airborne Law Enforcement Magazine, and Police One. He has appeared on the History Channel and radio programs in the United States and Europe as subject matter expert in technological applications in law enforcement.
Listen, call, join us at the Watering Hole.

Program Contact Information
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster, LAPD (ret.), MPA

Sunday, May 18, 2008


The International Tactical Officers Training Association (ITOTA) is proud and excited to partner with ADS and host the 2008 SWAT Evolution Expo to be held at the Meadowlands Exposition Center located in Newark, New Jersey. The SWAT Evolution Expois scheduled for October 29th and 30th, 2008, and will be a first-class production with all levels of the law enforcement and military special operations community in attendance.

The ITOTA is an association designed to bring the international
tactical community closer together through training and information sharing by focusing on the wealth of knowledge, experience and technology that exists in the global tactical community today. Our association scrupulously seeks out ways to meet the needs of our community and is ecstatic to partner with ADS. We are more than confident that this event will surpass our expectations in providing the most up-to-date, tactical, academic training and product showcase available today.

SWAT Evolution Expo is based on the concept of how “fifth” generation warfare has pushed Tactical Operations and training into a new evolution bringing the civilian Law Enforcement and Military Special Operations communities closer together—SWAT Evolution. Military and Law Enforcement tactical concepts are advancing and merging together by utilizing the best from both worlds. This is happening as a result of the War on Terrorism and direct urban conflict.

The SWAT Evolution Expo was developed to provide a “main stream,” educational and interesting platform that meshes tactical skills, training and knowledge of both
law enforcement and military special operations. You will hear from some of ITOTA’s finest international speakers and partners; from top U.S, Canadian and German Tactical Law Enforcement to U.S. Army, Navy and British Military Counter Terrorist Units. We are posed to provide the most innovative and main stream training and equipment solutions available.

The courses scheduled for the academic portion of the SWAT Evolution Expo are designed to show how tactics are evolving to generate enhanced results for the operator utilizing them. It’s about providing options and securing the homeland from within and abroad.


Army Leadership

As the keystone leadership manual for the United States Army, FM 6-22 establishes leadership doctrine, the fundamental principles by which Army leaders act to accomplish their mission and care for their people. FM 6-22 applies to officers, warrant officers, noncommissioned officers, and enlisted Soldiers of all Army components, and to Army civilians.

From Soldiers in basic training to newly commissioned officers, new
leaders learn how to lead with this manual as a basis. FM 6-22 is prepared under the direction of the Army Chief of Staff. It defines leadership, leadership roles and requirements, and how to develop leadership within the Army. It outlines the levels of leadership as direct, organizational, and strategic, and describes how to lead successfully at each level. It establishes and describes the core leader competencies that facilitate focused feedback, education, training, and development across all leadership levels.

It reiterates the
Army Values. FM 6-22 defines how the Warrior Ethos is an integral part of every Soldier’s life. It incorporates the leadership qualities of self-awareness and adaptability and describes their critical impact on acquiring additional knowledge and improving in the core leader competencies while operating in constantly changing operational environments.

In line with evolving Army doctrine, FM 6-22 directly supports the
Army’s capstone manuals, FM 1 and FM 3-0, as well as keystone manuals such as FM 5-0, FM 6-0, and FM 7-0. FM 6-22 connects Army doctrine to joint doctrine as expressed in the relevant joint doctrinal publications, JP 1 and JP 3-0. As outlined in FM 1, the Army uses the shorthand expression of BE-KNOW-DO to concentrate on key factors of leadership.

What leaders DO emerges from who they are (BE) and what they KNOW. Leaders are prepared throughout their lifetimes with respect to BE-KNOW-DO so they will be able to act at a moment’s notice and provide
leadership for whatever challenge they may face.
FM 6-22 expands on the principles in FM 1 and describes the character attributes and core competencies required of contemporary leaders. Character is based on the attributes central to a leader’s make-up, and competence comes from how character combines with knowledge, skills, and behaviors to result in

Inextricably linked to the inherent qualities of the
Army leader, the concept of BE-KNOW-DO represents specified elements of character, knowledge, and behavior described here in FM 6-22.


Saturday, May 17, 2008

Compstat and Organizational Change: A National Assessment

One of the clearest findings of the study is that Compstat--which combines state-of-the-art management principles with cutting-edge crime analysis and geographic information systems technology--has spread widely and quickly across American police agencies since being introduced in 1994 in the New York City Police Department. Among departments with 100 or more sworn officers, 6 in 10 reported that they had or intended to develop within a year a Compstat-like program.

The rate of adoption was much less among departments with between 50 and 99 sworn officers. This report suggests that one of the primary reasons for its spread is its fit with the traditional organizational structure of American policing. It harnesses that structure in attempting to make traditional American
police work more efficient and effective. Compstat departments, therefore, were less likely to implement specific elements of Compstat that demand significant change in the daily work and management of police agencies. Compstat has been most influential in featuring problem-solving, which has become an accepted feature of American policing. It also provides an approach to reform that empowers rather than challenges the traditional hierarchical military structure of American police organization.

According to Compstat's principal proponents, its various elements interweave to form a coherent program with its own logical integrity. The findings of this study, however, challenge this perspective in showing that some elements as implemented generate their own internal inconsistencies and may not integrate with one another as envisioned. Also, certain elements (e.g., mission clarification and internal accountability) may conflict with or de-emphasize existing innovative programs such as community policing. 38 references, site visit reports, and a case study of 1 department


Friday, May 16, 2008


Increasing numbers of people no longer view the safety of their neighborhoods as the sole responsibility of the police. Throughout the world, citizens in areas plagued by crime and violence are uniting to work with local government. Together, they have the knowledge and resources to identify and remove the sources of crime, drug use, and juvenile delinquency in their communities.

Developing and sustaining these partnerships requires strong local
leadership from mayors, city managers, city planners, and other elected local officials. This monograph was prepared to help create that leadership by chronicling how local public officials have used community safety partnerships to build healthier communities. A framework for using community-local government partnerships to reduce crime now exists based on the experiences of public officials in North America, Europe, Africa, and Australasia. This framework includes the following:

• Recognizing
crime and safety as a quality-of-life issue.

• Working across jurisdictional boundaries.

• Recognizing the crucial role of political leadership.

• Developing tools and measures of success that involve the community and victims of

The programs examined in this monograph illustrate that this framework works best when adapted to the specific needs of a community. Good governance requires that mayors and other key local officials develop the capacity to respond to those needs.


Sheriff's Guide to Effective Jail Operations

The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) recognizes that many local jails across the country are the responsibility of the elected county sheriff. With this in mind, NIC developed the Sheriff’s Guide to Effective Jail Operations to focus on jail issues from the perspective of the sheriff. This guide provides an overview of the sheriff’s roles and responsibilities with regard to the jail along with basic information on critical aspects of jail operations and management.

The guide highlights the types of support and
leadership the sheriff should provide to enable jail administrators to effectively manage the jail and includes other information to help the sheriff address jail problems, manage liability issues, and improve operations. Review checklists are included throughout the guide to help the reader assess the status or performance of his/her own jail. The guide concludes with a chapter outlining the steps a new sheriff may take during the first few months in office to learn about his/her jail and identify potential problem areas.

The content of the guide is drawn in part from the NIC publication, Resource Guide for Jail Administrators (Martin and Rosazza, 2004), and is organized to serve as a companion document to the larger Resource Guide. Readers interested in additional information about specific aspects of jail operations should refer to the Resource Guide. We hope this document will assist new
sheriffs who are learning about their responsibilities for the jail for the first time as well as veteran sheriffs seeking to improve the effectiveness of their operations.

We invite
sheriffs and other readers to take advantage of the other resource documents NIC has developed specifically for jails and to contact the NIC Jails Division for additional assistance, if needed.



Ten years ago, Congress gave the Civil Rights Division of the Justice Department new powers to sue state and local governments in federal court to correct a “pattern or practice” of police misconduct. Both the Clinton and Bush administrations have used this new power several times: in Los Angeles, Cincinnati, Detroit, the State of New Jersey, Steubenville, Ohio, and Prince Georges County, Maryland, among other jurisdictions.

In Pittsburgh—the first city to enter into a consent decree with the
Justice Department— most provisions of the decree were lifted after the Bureau of Police was judged to be in substantial compliance. Pittsburgh, therefore, is the first place we can look to see how the police can satisfy the Justice Department and whether this new kind of federal intervention can make a lasting difference.

To answer those questions, Vera researchers have studied the Pittsburgh
Police Bureau since 2001. Both before and after the decree for the Bureau was lifted in 2002, the researchers observed police in field and management settings, interviewed key officials and community leaders, conducted focus groups with police officers, surveyed citizens, reviewed the federal monitor’s reports, and conducted original analyses of police data. In
2003, researchers also surveyed more than 100 front-line officers.

The Vera researchers found that two key factors enabled the city quickly to comply with the terms of the decree: the
leadership of a talented police chief and guidance from the federal monitor. The police implemented new systems to track the use of force, traffic stops, and searches; new procedures to hold officers accountable; and new policies and training. Despite recent financial strains, those reforms remain firmly in place today, and both community leaders and citizen surveys reflect significant improvements in service.

The research also reveals the importance of such intervention for minority officers. In Pittsburgh, black officers who quietly criticized how the Bureau operated previously, say they appreciate the new consistency in management. In these respects, Pittsburgh is a success story for local
police management and for federal intervention. However, the researchers also found discontent among many front-line police officers and persistent concerns about police misconduct among a sizeable number of citizens. Both black and white officers in Pittsburgh say they believe that tighter management has made police less active and aggressive in fighting crime (although some performance data provided by the Bureau and our citizen survey do not support that belief). The public still lacks a role in the reform process, and citizens do not have access to police data that were given to the monitor under the decree.

There are strong signs a year after most of the decree has been lifted that federal intervention can encourage long-term improvements in
police accountability. More engagement of citizens and greater participation of front-line officers might have made a good process even better.


The Police-Based Victim Services Focus Group

On February 10-11, 2003, the International Association of Chiefs of Police held a focus group on the status of victim services and law enforcement that was attended by law enforcement leaders, line officers, detectives, victim advocates, and victims themselves. The concurrent goals of the focus group meeting, which consisted of general and breakout group sessions, were to: (1) identify critical and emerging issues, barriers and challenges facing law enforcement regarding victim services; and (2) recommend strategies to resolve these issues, overcome barriers and meet the identified challenges.

The focus group evolved from the IACP’s 1999 Summit on Victims of
Crime, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office for Victims of Crime, which brought together law enforcement leaders, representatives from the criminal justice system, victim advocates and victims to develop an action agenda in order to improve police response to victims. The participants of the summit identified seven critical needs of crime victims. These seven needs create, in turn, a set of criteria for effective victim services:

Access – Helping victim feel comfortable contacting the investigating officer to obtain or offer new information in their case helps ensure the victim will not feel left out of the system

Continuity – Coordination with local victim service providers and the prosecutor’s offices helps to ensure continuous service to the victim after the initial report is taken

Information – Availability of information in languages predominant in the community and in large print for the elderly should include resource sheets or brochures and relevant
police and victim service contact numbers

Justice – Cooperation, communication and support through the entire criminal justice process will help ensure the satisfaction of all parties involved in a case: victims,
police officers, prosecutors, victim service providers, etc.

Safety – Understanding the crisis reaction of victims and protecting the victim from future intimidation and harm helps enhance the victim’s sense of security

Support – Helping the victim feel comfortable to discuss the
crime and letting the victim know that the police are concerned about their needs will create an atmosphere of support that may encourage improved cooperation with criminal justice agencies

Voice – Allowing victims to express their needs and concerns ensures their feedback is addressed when agencies determine how to respond to future victims

Using these criteria as a starting point, focus group participants discussed not only the general obstacles agencies face in developing effective victim services, but also the specific needs of different levels of law enforcement
leadership, including chiefs and sheriffs, middle managers, first-line supervisors, line officers and detectives, field training officers (FTOs) and recruit officers, and training and certification agencies. This report will clarify those needs and strategies identified by focus group members to improve victim services in law enforcement agencies and provide a directional tool for law enforcement to use in advancing its approach to victim services.

Generally, focus group members concluded that the biggest impediments to enhancing the effectiveness of victim assistance programs in
law enforcement agencies are 1) negative institutional forces and 2) lack of training for all levels of law enforcement. Attendees recommended that law enforcement receive specific training on communication and sensitivity issues to address these hurdles. With respect to the roles of different levels of leadership, participants stressed that superiors must clarify their expectations of subordinates, and officers must be held accountable for providing quality services to victims. Additionally, attendees suggested ways law enforcement can have a positive influence on prosecutors to improve victim services and can engage the public in ways that will raise awareness about the need for effective victim services. Focus group participants also noted that departments do not need a victim services unit to provide effective victim services; assistance to victims can be offered in ways that are appropriate to individual agencies.


Recruitment and Retention

The POST Recruitment & Retention Best Practices Update addresses the rapidly changing environment in which law enforcement leaders find themselves. More leadership attention in workforce management is needed if executives are to successfully recruit and retain staff, while meeting the needs of the community as it grows and becomes more diversified. This report provides information and resources to assist law enforcement in addressing recruitment and retention issues. It updates best practices for agencies to consider to improve recruitment and retention. Specifically, this report provides a snapshot of current and projected changes in population demographics in addition to the implications these changes may have for law enforcement. It identifies hiring trends and potential competition for qualified candidates both within and outside the profession.

It provides survey results of academy recruits to determine where they had difficulty in the selection process, what led them to choose a specific agency for employment, what recruitment strategies worked to attract them and more. It identifies trends in national recruitment strategies. It provides survey results of agency representatives who attended the 2001 Recruitment Symposium indicating to what extent new strategies were implemented as a result of attending the symposium. It reports the outcome of focus groups comprised of subject matter experts, largely outside of the
law enforcement profession, to identify best practices in recruitment and retention. It highlights strategies developed by participants who attended the Recruitment and Retention Symposium 2005 – Developing Winning Recruitment and Retention Strategies as well as specific best practices.


Specialized Gang Units: Form and Function in Community Policing

Between 1980 and the mid-1990s, the number of specialized gang units in American law enforcement agencies appeared to increase substantially. The rise in specialized gang units coincided with the widespread adoption of community policing. In many ways, the increased number of gang units appeared inherently in conflict with the move to community- and problem-oriented policing, since the latter emphasizes decentralization and despecialization. This research examined whether community policing and specialized gang units are complementary or conflicting approaches, either in principle or practice. The research approach consisted of qualitative examination of police department procedures and practices, and extensive field observation of gang personnel. The research was conducted in two community policing agencies with gang units: Indianapolis, IN, and San Diego, CA. The project included extensive interviews with police leaders and other personnel in each agency to determine the rationale for gang-control policies. Over 500 hours of observation were conducted in the two sites of gang unit activities.

This report describes the missions and functions of the gang units in each jurisdiction and the specific types of activities engaged in by gang units-- documenting the time expended by gang unit personnel on each. The project compared and contrasted the two approaches, but the ultimate objective was to examine whether and how the tactics and strategies of the
gang units fit with the community-oriented mission of the two police agencies. The results suggest that gang units can have an important role in modern policing. There is little evidence that specialized gang units conflict with community policing in principle or practice. The use of discriminate strategies and strategic approaches to gangs in both cities appears to reflect the influence of community and problem-oriented policing. Also reflecting the influence of community and problem-oriented policing are the agencies’ reliance on data and attention to the mechanisms through which police efforts could be expected to influence of crime and criminality.


Thursday, May 15, 2008

Quality-of-Life Policing: Do Offenders Get the Message?

In the 199Os, the New York City Police Department increased patrols and enforcement of laws against quality-of-life [QOL] offenses. Many have heralded this focus as the prime cause for the decline in the City’s crime rate citing the fixing broken windows argument that disorder breeds crime. However, the underlying mechanics of the broken windows paradigm have not yet been systematically explored. This paper assesses one aspect of the broken windows line of reasoning, that QOL policing sends a message to offenders that QOL misbehaviors will not be tolerated.

Responses fiom 539 New York City arrestees interviewed in 1999 indicate that almost all of them were aware that
police were targeting various QOL offenses. Among those active in QOL misbehaviors, about half reported that they had seriously cut back or stopped their involvements in the past six month, and about half had not. Those reducing their involvement cited general police presence as the most important factor, suggesting that for them QOL policing had served as a general deterrent. This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.


Citizen Review of Police: Approaches & Implementation

In many communities in the United States, residents participate to some degree in overseeing their local law enforcement agencies. The degree varies. The most active citizen oversight boards investigate allegations of police misconduct and recommend actions to the chief or sheriff. Other citizen boards review the findings of internal police investigations and recommend that the chief or sheriff approve or reject the findings. In still others, an auditor investigates the process by which the police or sheriff's department accept or investigate complaints and reports to the department and the public on the thoroughness and fairness of the process.

Citizen oversight systems, originally designed to temper
police discretion in the
1950s, have steadily grown in number through the 1990s. But determining the
proper role has a troubled history. This publication is intended to help citizens,
law enforcement officers and executives, union leaders, and public interest groups understand the advantages and disadvantages of various oversight systems and components.

In describing the operation of nine very different approaches to citizen oversight, the authors do not extol or disparage citizen oversight but rather try to help jurisdictions interested in creating a new or enhancing an existing oversight system by:

Describing the types of citizen oversight.

Presenting programmatic information from various jurisdictions with existing
citizen oversight systems.

Examining the social and monetary benefits and costs of different systems.

The report also addresses staffing; examines ways to resolve potential conflicts
between oversight bodies and police; and explores monitoring, evaluation, and
funding concerns. No one system works best for everyone. Communities must take responsibility for fashioning a system that fits their local situation and unique needs. Ultimately, the author notes, the talent, fairness, dedication, and flexibility of the key
participants are more important to the procedure's success than is the system's


Boston's Comprehensive Communities

Program: A Case Study, 2004

The Comprehensive Communities Program (CCP) played a pivotal part in Boston’s achievements, most notably by funding an unusually intensive planning process. This planning process brought together the
Boston Police Department (BPD), community leaders, citizens, criminal justice agencies, and social service providers in each of Boston’s police districts over an extended period of time during which neighborhood problems were identified and tactics were developed to solve them. This planning process also laid the groundwork for an ongoing accountability process in each of the districts.

To achieve these goals, long-standing suspicions, indeed even antagonisms among participants, had to be overcome and/or managed. While this did not happen overnight, and while the BPD’s and other organizations’ capacities were strained by their new experiences and responsibilities, for the most part, problems were overcome. They were overcome in large part by the self-consciousness of the BPD: that is, by its willingness to learn from its experiences and its attempt to find new ways of solving problems, be they neighborhood or program administration problems.

This case study of Boston’s CCP program was written as a result of site visits made to various CCP programs and interviews with CCP participants between September, 1995 and April, 1997. It also incorporates data from BOTEC’s CCP Coalition Survey and Community Policing Survey, as well as information contained in federal and local documents and reports. Follow-up phone calls were made during December, 1997 and January, 1998, to key participants in order to write the epilogue.


Wednesday, May 14, 2008

Good to Great Policing: Application of Business Management Principles in the Public Sector

In his best-selling book Good to Great, Jim Collins gives business executives advice about how to push their companies from the “merely good” to the rarefied world of greatness. This PERF report explores how the principles of Good to Great might be applied to policing.

It is important to understand that Collins is extremely careful in how he uses the word “great.” His criteria for greatness in business, based on stock market performance, are so stringent that he could find only 11 companies that qualified as great. To make a rough translation of Collins’ principles into the
policing environment: A police chief striving for greatness might set a goal of reducing violent crime in his jurisdiction by, say, 50 percent. It would not matter to the chief if crime were going up everywhere else in the country, because great executives do not look for excuses; they look to get things done. And to be truly great, the chief not only would need to meet his target; he would need to ensure that the reduction in crime would be sustained even if he retired.

In Collins’ view, great executives focus their ambition not on personal glory, but on making the organization great, and that includes “setting up their successors for success.”
So Collins has set high standards for greatness. And if greatness in
policing can be achieved, it certainly would be a powerful force for good in the world. Good to Great first came to my attention in 2002. I was shuttling back and forth from Washington, D.C., to work with the Chicago Police Department (CPD), and everyone in Chicago seemed to be talking about “getting the right people on the bus, the wrong people off the bus, and the right people in the right seats.” I asked what that meant, and the CPD’s Good to Great fans referred me to the book. They explained that one of Collins’ key findings was that in the companies with the most impressive records of success, executives began their quest for greatness not by setting goals, but by hiring the right people, dismissing those who would thwart change, and finding the best positions for everyone who remained.

Once the right people were on the bus, then the
leader and his team began deciding where to direct the bus in order to find greatness. I read Good to Great, was intrigued, and wondered whether the analysis of how to make a business successful could be applied to policing. I tracked Collins down, and he was amazingly approachable for a man who had a book on the nonfiction bestseller lists for months. He invited me out to Boulder and before I knew it, I was on a plane to Colorado. A short time later, I found myself in a Boulder deli with Collins and Milliken, Colorado Chief of Police Jim Burack. What an amazing day we had! Collins was intrigued with how his principles might apply to policing and other parts of government, as well as to nonprofit groups, social service agencies, even churches. While his research was in the field of business, he already was beginning to speculate that the ability to overcome obstacles seemed to be the key to greatness for police executives and other government leaders. (Collins has noted that in some ways, police executives face more obstacles than do business leaders. For example, throwing anyone “off the bus” can be far more difficult for police executives than for many business leaders.)